Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Juggling FHIR Versions in HAPI

It happens every time.  You target one version of FHIR, and it turns out that someone needs to work with a newer or older (but definately different) version.  It's only about 35 changes that you have to make, but through thousands of lines of code.  What if you could automate this?

Well, I've actually done something like that using some Java static analysis tools, but I have a quicker way to handle that for now.

Here's what I did instead:

I'm using the Spring Boot launcher with some customizations.  I added three filter beans to my launcher.  Let's just assume that my server handles the path /fhir/* (it's actually configurable).

  1. A filter registration bean which registers a filter for /fhir/dstu2/* and effectively forwards content from it converted from DSTU2 (HL7) to the servers version, and converts the servers response back to DSTU2.
  2. Another filter registration bean which registers a filter for /fhir/stu3/* and effectively forwards content from it converted from STU3 to the servers version, and converts the servers response back to STU3.
  3. Another filter registration bean which registers a filter for /fhir/r4/* and effectively forwards content from it converted from R4 to the servers version, and converts the servers response back to R4.
These are J2EE Servlet Filters rather than HAPI FHIR Interceptors, b/c they really need to be right now. HAPI servers aren't really all that happy about being multi-version compliant, although I'd kinda prefer it if I could get HAPI to let me intercept a bit better so that I could convert them in Java rather than pay the serialization costs in and out.

In addition to converting content, the filters also handle certain HttpServlet APIs a little bit differently.  There are two key places where you need to adjust:

  1. When Content-Type is read from the request or set on the response, you have to translate fhir+xml or fhir+json to xml+fhir or json+fhir and vice versa for certain version pairs.  DSTU2 used the "broken" xml+fhir, json+fhir mime types, and this was fixed in STU3 and later.
  2. You need to turn off gzip compression performed by HAPI, unless you are happy writing a GZip decoder for the output stream (it's simple enough, but more work than you want to take on at first).
Your input stream converter should probably be smart and not try to read on HEAD, GET, OPTIONS or DELETE methods (because they have no body), and there won't be anything to translate.  However, for PUT, POST, and PATCH, it should.

Binary could a be a bit weird, I don't have anything that handles creates on Binary resources, and they WOULD almost certainly require special handling, I simply don't know if HAPI has that special handling built in.  It certainly does for output, which has made my life a lot easier for some custom APIs (I simply return a parameter of type Binary, with mimetype of application/json to get an arbitrary non-FHIR formatted API output), but as I said, I've not looked into the input side.

This is going to make my HL7 V2 Converter FHIR Connectathon testing a lot easier in a couple of weeks, because O&O (and I) are eventually targeting R4, but when I first started on this project, R4 wasn't yet available, so I started in DSTU2, and like I said, it might be 35 changes, but against thousands of lines of code?  I'm not ready for that all-nighter at the moment.

It's cheap but not free.  These filters cost in serialization time in and out (adding about 300ms of time just for the conformance resource), but it is surely a lot quicker way towards handling a new (or old) version for FHIR for which there are already HAPI FHIR Converters, and it at least gets you to a point where you can do integration tests with code that need it while you make the conversion.  This took about a day and a half to code up and test.  I'd probably still be at a DSTU2 to R4 conversion for the rest of the week on the 5K lines or so that I need to handle V2 to FHIR conversion.

   Keith



1 comment:

  1. Hi Keith, Thanks for documenting that approach. I'm working on conversion between STU3 and R4 and back and till now I was able to do it with the hapi-fhir interception framework, I have an initial implementation working, see https://github.com/ahdis/matchbox/blob/master/src/main/java/ch/ahdis/matchbox/interceptor/VersionInterceptor.java if interested. It works with the "wrong" request header type xml+fhir, however if you would need that also in the response headers that will not work.

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